A special episode of Ruspod Shorts focuses on a bunch of Russian words that are very rarely translated into English: some, because they actually entered the English vocabulary; some, because they describe specifically Russian things; and some, because there's just no way to translate them, they can only be explained.
pogrom, a violent riot
an old lady; babooshka in English is a head-scarf
cosmonaut, a Russian/Soviet astronaut
council, advice, soviet
intelligentsia, intellectual class